The Second World War was nearing its end and during that period the antibiotic penicillin was developed and was widely produced. This was happening because penicillin was being used as a life-saving drug in the treatment of bacterial infection of injured soldiers. Since then, penicillin and other antibiotics have been used to remove bacterial infections.
Presently, the biggest tragedy for us is that antibiotics are not a virus effective against viruses. In this case, only antiviral medication can be effective. Researchers and pharmaceutical companies have been struggling to produce antiviral drugs for effective treatment of SARS-Cove-2 ever since the infection of the global disease called Corona virus began. It is noteworthy that this is the same virus that causes Covid-19 disease.
In such cases, the question arises that why is there less antiviral drugs in the world? Why they have not been constructed in sufficient numbers. The correct answer lies in biology. The reality is that these viruses replicate and multiply their cells very rapidly. In these circumstances, it becomes very difficult to eliminate this virus without destroying the body’s own cells.
Actually, bacteria have a self-contained life which can remain separate from the bacteria present in the body. They are similar to our cells but many of its characteristics are different from humans. For example, penicillin drug is effective because it hinders the formation of bacterial cell layer. Cell walls or cell layer are made of polymers called peptidoglycan. Human cells have no layer of cells or no peptidoglycos. In this way, antibiotics that prevent bacteria from forming peptidoglycan prevent bacteria from damaging the person taking the medicine. This is the principle of specific poisoning.
Doesn’t the virus multiply differently from the body cell like bacteria? Currently, there is a debate about whether the virus should be considered an organism or not. Viruses require cells of the body to multiply in replication. It penetrates the cell of the body and subdues the body by occupying the entire body system.
On the one hand, some viruses remain in dormant state. Some have gradually multiplied in replication and some have been leaking from the cells over a long period of time. Some viruses make so many patterns in the body that they destroy the cell in which they have entered. After this, the virus particles originating from the replication start infecting other new cells. The antiviral treatment that can disrupt the virus life cycle during this process can be called successful treatment. Overall the problem in this case is that if the treatment of the virus targets the process of replication of the virus then It also damages the healthy cells of the body. That is, it is easy to eliminate virus infected cells during treatment, but by doing so, it becomes difficult to keep other healthy cells inside the body alive.
Successful antiviral viruses target the life cycle and prevent its replication from multiplying. During this time the patient suffers the least harm. Since the virus is multiplied only by joining the body cell, antiviral drugs are rarely produced which can target the virus. Unfortunately, most viruses have some specific differences that can be targeted. Not only this, the problem is that different viruses have more differences than bacteria. Bacteria are twofold from the DNA genome and are replicated differently, which are then divided into two parts, like human cells.
Different viruses have very different nature. Some have DNA genome and some have RNA genome. Similarly, some are monograms and some are double monograms. This is also a big reason for the creation of different antiviral drugs for different types of viruses. However, despite all these circumstances, there have been some successes. An example is influenza A which is a type of flu. It enters the human cell with a trick.
The virus that enters human leaves its RNA by opening the outer layer of the cell. In this case the viral protein matrix-2 conducts the Puri process. This virus helps in releasing RNA from the particles. Once RNA is released into the human body cell, it reaches the center of the cell and starts replicating the virus. But if the drug blocks the matrix-2 protein, the RNA of the virus cannot exit and reach the cell center where it is impersonated. This way the infection stops.
Amandadine and remandetine antiviral drugs were also initially successful in fighting Covid-19. Both these drugs directly affect the matrix-2 protein. Janmivar and oseltomivir are the new medicines through which the treatment of influenza A or B patients was successful. It reduces infection of the body by preventing leakage of the main viral enzyme. Tumiflu is an antiviral drug that has been successful in reducing influenza infection in humans. Till now we have not been able to make such effective medicine for the treatment of Covid-19 patients.
There is still time in the search for vaccine for Covid-19. It is not decided how much time it will take. Under these circumstances, antiviral drug detection is the only goal. In the present situation, we are more dependent on studying the problems of SARS-Cove-2 virus and its effects on humans. If researchers are able to find out the unique thing about how the virus survives and how they replicate themselves, then they will be able to manufacture effective antiviral drugs.